Minangkabau – West Sumatera
Minangkabau the greatest name of the Western of Sumatera (Sumatera Barat) to the most of people in another name of Pariangan Kingdom, established in the middle of twelve Century (1339), situated in the Southern East Slope of Merapi Volcano. This cannot be argued since the history of Minangkabau nature itself is a “Tambo” which is comfirmed by the Minangkabau people up to this time.
Most people said that “Tambo” of Minangkabau contained only fiction and so too said that it is only contained 2% the truth, while 98% is a mythologi. Most people nowadays interprets that, the name of Minangkabau formally derived from the Bull Fighting tradition, which was begun with the fight of two buffalos, one from Swarnadwipa (Java) and the other from Pariangan, Swarnabhumi (Andalas). At that time the winner was the buffalo from Pariangan, there fore the land was named Minangkabau. “Minang” was interpreted as Menang or Win and “Kabau” is the name for buffalo in West Sumatera word.
Principally, the name of Minangkabau was existed for more than the existence of Pariangan Kingdom whose king was Adityawarman (1339 – 1376), than it was believed that the name was existed at the first time the fore parents stepped on the land arround the slope of Merapi Volcano. This could be proved by the spreading of religious in Minangkabau ;
- Budhish (Hinayana) 6 – 7 Century
- Islamic (Sunnah) 670 – 730
- Budhish (Mahayana) 730 – 1150
- Islamic (Syi’ah) 1150 – 1803
This is can be proved either by the founding of an ancient inscription in Sriwijaya, which is written to be said;
Swasti Cri Cakrawarsita 605 Eka Dacicu
Klapaksa Wulan Waikasa Dapunta Hiyang Nayik Di
Samwau Manalap Siddhayatra Di Saptami Culapaksa
Wulan Jyestha Dapunta Hiyang Marlapas Dari Minanga
Tamwan Mamawa Yam Wala Dua Laksa Da Nan Ko Ca
Dua Ratus Cara Di Samwau danan Jalan Sariwu
Tilu Ratus Sapulu Dua Wanakna Datam Di Matayap
Sukha Citta Di Pancami Cukla Pasa Wulan …………..
Langhu Mudita Datam Marbuat Wanua ………………
Criwijaya Jaya Siddhayatra Subhiksa
that can be translated as follow;
congratulation on the leaving of caka (saka) year 605 on the date of 11
on the half moon of waichaka, the majesty of greatest man
ride on the canoe set for the holly mission on the 7 of half bright
of the Jyestha moon. The majesty was set
from minang tamwan brought 20.000 soldiers with boxes
2000 was set with canoes while a 1000 walked on the land
302 come to the matayap
on the happy day on the 5 of………..
was established the town easily and happily
criwijaya was win couse of the holly mission
(which couse the property)
At the inscription was clearly written the holly mission from Minanga Tamwan to Sriwijaya. Minanga means Binanga which is means River, while Tamwan or Temon is the founding, therefore the words “Minanga Tamwan” means the estuary two twin rivers, Left Kampar and Right Kampar which is well known as Muara Takus.
Muara takus basically, was the center of the spread of Budha Mahayana (730 – 1150) and there was also some said that the word Minangkabau derived from the word Pinang(a) Kabu which is means “Base Land” or original land.
The existence of Minangkabau is predicted to exist since the 2nd – 3rd Century. This could be seen from the development of religious in Minangkabau. The first religion which firstly came to Minangkabau was Budhish (Hinayana) 6th – 7th Century. While Islamic firstly came on the 6th Century, and after that was vacoom since the trading monopoly between Khalifah Umayyah (670 – 730) and China Tang Dinasty (604 – 908).
HE FORE FATHER OF MINANGKABAU
Based on the believe of the fore parents stated in “Tambo”, news and ancients proverbs, it can be said that to judge “Tambo” was containing 2% the truth and 98% mithology is trully reasonable.
According to Proff. Kern, the first nation came firstly to the Southern of Khatulistiwa (Minangkabau) was said “Proto Meleiers” or the old Malay, than came “Deuto Meleiers” or the Young Malay. Generally “Nusantara” once was came by nations from Campa, Kampuchea and Kochin.
And according to “Tambo” of Minangkabau, the fore father of Minangkabau was Sultan Maharajo Dirajo. Who had sailed with his followers Cati Bilang Pandai which was well known with the name Tukang Sibak Ulai, and the four skilled escort in self defence, Kuciang Siam, Harimau Campo, Kambiang Hutan and Anjieng mualim. The had sailed along the Lakadewa Island passing Serindit and Langgapuri or Ceylon straight to Gold archipel and harboured in the Merapi Volcano.
Sultan Maharajo Dirajo was the son of Iskandar Zulkarnain (Alexander Grote). Alexander Grote or the Great Alexander was the greatest kingdom’s king in Masedonia (Athen) 365 – 323 Bc. He was the pupil of Aristoteles 384 – 323 Bc. While Aristoteles was the pupil of plato 427 – 347 Bc. Alexander Grote married to a prnces of Ruhum (East Rome). From this married he was inherited three sons, named; Sultan Maharajo Alif, Sultan Maharajo Depang (Dipang) and Sultan Maharajo Dirajo.
Before the death of Iskandar Zulkarnain (Alexander Grote), he has assigned his son Sultan Maharajo Alif to leave for Ruhum (East Rome) to govern it, while Sultan Maharajo Dipang had been assigned to China to govern it and Sultan Maharajo Dirajo had been assigned to came to an island in the southern of Equator.As it had stated earlier, Sultan maharajo dirajo was set with his followers along Lakadewa passing Serindit or Langgapuri straight to the Gold Island or Jawa Alkibri which is now is named Sumatera (Andalas).
Among the followers there were Cati Bilang Pandai or named Tukang Sibak Ulai, and the four escort Kuciang siam, Harimau Campo, Kambiang Hutan and Anjieng Mualim. The four were the champion of self defence from their own region. They were not animal although were named with animal Kuciang (Cat), Harimau (Tiger), Kambiang (Goat) and Anjieng (Dog). They were totally human being that were named is accordance to their style of skill in self defence.
After harbouring to the Andalas island the journey was straighted to the slope of Merapi Volcano and this was the beginning of the dwelling of Sultan Maharajo Dirajo in the slope of Merapi. And the first home of theirs was named Galundi Nanbaselo.
Sultan Maharajo Dirajo has four doughters and a niece called Indah Juita. The four doughters of Sultan Maharajo Dirajo ware married to his followers while his niece was married to Sangsepurbha. Sangsepurbha was the name derived from the Greek word means Suprabha who came from “Kula Warga Sri Sailendra Kaundinya” from Bukit Siguntang (Mahameru). From the marriage of Sang Sepurbha and Indah Juita they were inherited a son named Dt. Perpatiah Nan Sabatang.
After the death of Sang Sepurbha, the widow Indah Juita married to Cati Bilang Pandai, and from their marreid they had two sons, Dt. ketumanggungan and Dt. Suri Dirajo. Of the three sons of Indah Juita, Dt. Ketumanggungan and Dt. Perpatiah Nan Sabatang were found of goverment and politic, while Dt. Suri Dirajo was found of military (force) and it was Dt. Suri Dirajo who created the science of self defence in Minangkabau which now is well known with the name of Silek (Silat).
HE PRINCIPAL THROUGHT (WAY OF LIFE) OF MINANGKABAU PEOPLE
Rumah basandi Batu house is foundationed with stone
Adat basandi alua patuik cutom based on logic
Mamakai anggo jo tanggo the use of rule of law
Sarato raso jo pareso and mutual understanding
From the above principe it could be seen that
- “Basandi Batu” (Dialectic)
- “Musyawarah Mufakat”, “Alua Patuik” (logic)
- “Anggo Tanggo” (rule of law)
- “raso jo pareso” (observation).
With the interpretation as follows;
Adat Bajanjang Naiak Batanggo Turun (custom in applied structurally)
Babilang dari aso counted from one
Mangaji dari alif to learn from the basic
Naiak dari janjang nan dibawah step on to from the first stair
Turun dari tanggo nan diateh down from the top stair
Kamanakan barajo kamamak = nephew obeyed the uncle
Mamaka barajo ka pangulu = uncle obeyed the chief of the familly
Pangulu barajo ka mufakat = chief of the familly obeyed the discussion
Mufakat barajo ka nanbana = discussion obeyed the truth
Bana badiri sandirinyo = the truth stand alone
From the above statement, it could be seen how democratic is the law of custom “Bajanjang Naiak Batanggo Turun”, created by the two Datuk, Dt. Perpatiah nan Sabatang and Dt. Ketumanggungan.